Mama Ro at Myasnitskaya

Mama Ro on Myasnitskaya street is located on the corner of one of the most ancient streets of Moscow, known from the XVII century. Once, there was a tower of the Myasnitskaya (which means “Butcher’s” in Russian) Gate, a large stone fortress of the “White City”. The street passed through the gate and met the townspeople with endless butcher shops. Today, instead of shops there are a multitude of cafes and bars, and on the place of the fortress wall there is a boulevard ring that encircles historical Moscow. Walking along the boulevard, ancient churches are within walking distance of the main attractions of the capital. All of this is a pleasant bonus that’s included in the choice of any of Mama Ro studios in Myasnitskaya.

Moscow, Myasnitskaya, 30, build. 3.

Following studios are located here:
Pirate, Magma, Rousseau, Extreme,
British, Balance, Veronese, Theater.

Find us:

The quickest way to get to the center of any airport of Moscow – high-speed express train (journey time – 35 to 45 minutes). Check schedules and prices, please visit the Aeroexpress . Upon arrival in the city, use the metro.


We are located at “Sretensky Boulevard” metro station. The average travel time from any Moscow railway station to “Sretensky Boulevard” is 15 minutes. The Moscow Metro map is available here >

Walking from the metro

Walking time to Mama Ro apartments from “Sretensky Boulevard” metro station takes 3 minutes. Use the 3D graphic map (see the picture) to find the right direction from the metro. Our entrance has a round canopy. Ring the doorbell near the “Mama Ro” sign. Our administrator will be waiting for you on the 2nd floor.

By car

To get directions with Google or Yandex Maps, type in the search box: Moscow, Myasnitskaya, 30, build. 3..

Just a 17
Minute Walk 
to the
Heart of Moscow


The Moscow Kremlin!

You will find below the
entertainment we created
devoted to this architectur-
al ensemble. Please scroll
down to check it out.
Have a good surfing!


The Kremlin is the oldest part of the city. The first fortifications on Borovitsky Hill appeared in 1156 and occupied only the south-western part. The city was quickly developing and expanding, and in 1340, by order of Prince Ivan Kalita, wooden towers and walls were built around the hill. In 1367, under Dmitry Donskoy, a Russian master, begin to erect the walls and towers of white stone.

The Kremlin got its modern look in the 15th century when Prince Ivan III invited the best Italian architects to Moscow who, in 1485, started large-scale construction. The boundaries of the Kremlin increased significantly:, there they built 2235 meters of walls and 20 towers made of red brick. There’s an interesting fact that in the XVIII century the Kremlin was whitewashed and remained white until the mid XX century. In 1947, the Kremlin buildings were restored to celebrate the 800th anniversary of Moscow. Then, by the order of Stalin walls and towers were repainted in red which was an ideologically true color and so it remains red to this day.

The famous stars appeared on the Spasskaya, Nikolskaya, Troitskaya and Borovitskaya towers of the Kremlin in 1935, just after the symbols of the imperial power, the double-headed eagles, were removed from them. The first stars were made of stainless steel which were coated with gold and the hammer and sickle were placed in the center and were inlaid with Ural semi-precious stones. However, a year later due to dirt in the air, the gems faded and ceased to shine, and the stars were dismantled. The new stars of ruby glass with internal lighting were produced and installed. Later, there also appeared a fifth star on the Vodovzvodnaya tower.

The Kazan Cathedral

The cathedral is built in the Russian style – with the number of tiers of the corbel arches (kokoshniki) and a tent-roofed belfry. However, in the 18-19 centuries the building has suffered several changes, so the cathedral began to look more like a typical refectory church of 19th century in a classic style, which had seriously angered the public and the clergy.

In 1936, when Red Square was being prepared for restoration, the Kazan cathedral was demolished as “the building which did not serve the new significance for Red Square which was now a place for military parades of the Soviet Socialistic State”.

Luckily, a famous Russian architect Pyotr Baranovsky managed to make the plans and the measurements of the building, so the cathedral was finally rebuilt in 1990-1993 basing on the Old Russian forms of the 17th century.

The Zaikonospassky Monastery

The Monastery of the Holy Mandalion was founded in 1600 by decree of Boris Godunov. The monastery acquired its current name due to its location “behind the icon shops”. The Saviour Cathedral in the monastery was built in 1701 by an architect Ivan Zarudny and is one of the best examples of Petrine baroque.

In 1687, on monastery territory the first institution in Russia, the Slavic Greek Latin Academy, was opened.

One of the most famous students of this academy is Mikhail Lomonosov, the first Russian scientist, natural philosopher of universal importance, lexicographer, the poet who became a symbol of Russian science, and the founder of the Moscow State University.

The Synodal Printing house building

The print yard was built in 1563 for the printing house of Ivan Fyodorov, who is considered as the founder of the Russian printing. “Apostol”, the first Russian dated printed book was published here. And in 1703, the first newspaper was printed here marking the beginning of the Russian periodical press.

Since the beginning, the buildings of the Print yard had undergone many changes. The Gothic revival building, which faced the Nikolskaya street was built in 1811-1815 as per the project of a Russian architect Ivan Mironovski. The foreside is decorated with the ornamental white-stone cutting and the fancy columns with vine, as well as the motifs of the ancient Print yard buildings: a lion and a unicorn.

Nowadays it is a house for the Historical institute of the Russian University of Humanities.

Nikolskaya Street

Nikolskaya street was built at the end of 13th century as a part of the Moscow – Vladimir road. It is one of three main roads of Kitay-gorod – one of the oldest Moscow districts. Before the creation of the Red Square, the street took its beginning from the Nikolskie Gate of the Kremlin and was going to the Nikolskie (Vladimirskie) gate of the Kitay-gorod wall.

The street was named after the monastery of Nikola the Old, which was founded in 1390. Step by step the street was building up with monasteries,merchants’ rows and the house of the noble boyars. It was prestigious to live on Nikolskaya. The first printing house in Russia – the Moscow Print Yard- was created on this street, as well as the Slavic Greek Latin academy, the first institute of higher education in Russia where Mikhail Lomonosov took his study. Nikolskaya was the centre of the icons and books trade.

In the 19th century the buildings of Nikolskaya strongly increased; many different shops, coffee houses, restaurants and hotels appeared here. This is what a Russian author Ivan Kokorev wrote about the street: “House to house, door to door, window to window, all of this, from the bottom to top is covered with sign boards as if they were wallpaper”. The trading spirit of the street has remained till the present time. The street is currently reconstructed and appointed more for pedestrian flow.

The Tretyakov passage with the shopping galleries

Tretyakov passage was built in 1871 as per the project of the architect Alexandre Kaminsky against order of the merchants-philanthropists brothers Pavel and Sergey Tretyakov, founders of the Tretyakov Gallery – one of the main Moscow art museums.

To construct a passage, a tiny part of the Kitay-gorod wall was dismantled. The passage connected Nikolskaya street with Teatralny passage. The shopping galleries were arranged in the passage.

Two buildings with the gate arches are completely different on the level of architecture. The foreside which faces Nikolskaya is made in a neo-renaissance style and the one which faces Teatralny passage simulates a Russian style – a tent-shaped tower-ramparts in the form of “dovetail”, a ornamental machicolation; all of this should have been correlated with the medieval wall of Kitay-gorod.

Today this place is called “a passage of the luxurious boutiques”, since nowadays it is one of the most expensive places for shopping in Moscow.

Ferrein’s Pharmacy

The building was built in 1894-1899 under the project direction of the architect Adolf Erichson in the style of eclecticism. The unusual architecture of this building contrasts the main facade and the back of the house. The main facade is in the Neoclassical style with fluted columns topped by statues and the back part of the building looks like a medieval castle with a tower where there used to be clocks.

This house belonged to a pharmaceutical magnate Karl Ferrein. It was the largest pharmacy in Europe! It sold not only medicine but also cosmetics and perfume products, as well as medical wines of its own production such as "Sherry", "Peptic Ferrein", "Coca on Port Wine", and "Cola made on the basis of Sherry".

Of course, the pharmacy was nationalized during the Soviet years. Today, there is a shop and a restaurant “Baccarat” whose interior was designed by the famous designer Philippe Starck.

Nikolskie Gate of the Kitay-gorod wall
Monument is lost

Nikolskie gate is a non-existent part of the Kitay-gorod rampart; they used to connect Nikolskaya street with Lubyanskaya square.

Kitay-gorod wall is the second line of the Moscow fortification structure, which was designed to protect the city from the Crimea tatar raids. The first lines of defense were the Kremlin walls.

The construction of the Kitay-gorod wall took a period from the 1534 to 1538, and was operated by an Italian architect Petrok Maly. The rampart of 2567 meters long was a lot lower than the one at the Kremlin, but thicker, which made it convenient to defend from cannon fire. The towers turn out to be more stocky, so some of them were rebuilt to the tent-roofed towers, including Nikolskaya.

The wall had lost its defensive significance back in 18th century, and in the Soviet time this great example of the Old Russian architecture was demolished due to Stalin’s plan for the reconstruction of Moscow. Nikolskie gate sank into oblivion together with the fortress walls. As for today, only several fragments of the ancient building along with the part of the wall with the Bird’s tower at the Revolution square might be found.

Lubyanka Square

The name of this area presumably dates back to the 15th century when it was inhabited by migrants from Novgorod where there was a street called Lubyanitsa.

The square has changed its look over time. Its actual look was formed in the mid-20th century. In the center of the square in 1958 was a monument to the Soviet politician Felix Dzerzhinsky, the "red executioner" and "Iron Felix", as he was nicknamed by the people. However, in August 1991, the excited crowd nearly knocked down the monument, fortunately, this accident was prevented, otherwise the people themselves, and the metro station would suffer. The next day, the monument was carefully removed as a symbol of totalitarianism and the Soviet repressive machine, and now it is in the "Muzeon" Art Park.

Today Lubyanka Square is a reminder of the terrible years of repression and totalitarianism, and instead of "Iron Felix" a bit further down there is a memorial the "Solovetsky Stone" which is a large granite boulder brought from Solovetki Special Purpose Camp and established in memory of the victims of Soviet repression.

The Building of the OGPU-NKVD-KGB-FSB or the Lubyanka Building

The today building of the FSB (Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation) is formed of two apartment houses built in 1897-99 by the architects Alexander Ivanov and Nikolai Proskurin for the All-Russia Insurance Company. With the advent of the Soviet government the Insurance company was nationalized and both buildings were handed over to Cheka management. Since then, the building was passed to the successive state security agencies: the OGPU, NKVD, NKGB and MGB, KGB and FSB since 1996.

In the mid-30s a new building for the OGPU was built and designed by the department full-time architects Ivan Bezrukov and Arkadiy Langman. In 1939-47, the workshop, under the guidance of the famous architect Alexey Shchusev, reconstructed one of the two houses of the former All-Russia Company having united it with the second house. Part of the Malaya Lubyanka street has become the courtyard and the complex of the buildings occupied the entire city block. In 1983-84 the facade of the second house of the All-Russia Company was rebuilt in accordance with the Shchusev project.

For the inhabitants of our country, especially for the older generation, the word "Lubyanka" which indicates this complex of buildings with the inner prison became a common name and is associated with the dark past of the Soviet state - it is here where they made the decisions and signed documents of mass arrests and executions.

The Saltykov-Chertkov Mansion

This is one of the few survived not religious baroque buildings in Moscow. The main building of the mansion was built in the middle of the 18th century. Subsequently there were numerous outhouses added to the building, which were combined into one building with a central manor in the middle of the 19th century.

There are well preserved interiors from the 19th century in the mansion – the Gothic hall, the smoking-room in Mauritanian style, and a ladder decorated by Fyodor Schechtel, a famous Russian architect of Art Nouveau epoch. In 1831, Alexander Chertkov, a Russian scientist and bibliophile bought the mansion; he collected a unique library dedicated to Russian history. His house became a centre for the Moscow cultural life of that time. Alexander Pushkin, Nikolay Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Konstantin Tsiolkovski have all been visited and worked at the mansion.

Today there are many different exhibitions and installations taking place at the manor.

Myasnitskaya (Butcher) Street

Myasnitskaya street was built in 15th century, its history takes its beginning in the construction of the Church of Assumption at Nikolsky gate of the Kitay-gorod fortress. The butchers began to settle on this street in the olden times, so this is where the street got its current name from.

In the 18th century the street changed its character, the houses of the noblesse and monastery inns began to appear here. However, it remained mostly wooden buildings. The current look of Myasnitskaya formed in the late 19th to the beginning of 20th century, when the new city owners came up to the street – the bourgeoisie, the owners of the factories. The street began to build up with big commercial apartment buildings, with business concerned offices, and with banks. The General Emperor Post office was built at that time. The street acquired a business status. It is one of the first to be provided with street lightening, in the beginning – a gas one, and after – the electric, furthermore, the line of the horse railroad appeared to here, and then, later on, the tramline. And in the 20th century the first line of the Moscow subway was paved under this street.

Myasnitskaya is today one of the liveliest streets of the city, many cafés and restaurants could be found on it, which, in combination with the diverse types of architecture and well-designed pavements, makes the street very attractive for walks.

The Stroganov School Apartment Building

The Apartment Building in the Art Nouveau style was built in 1904-1906 under the project of architect Fyodor Schechtel commissioned by the Imperial Stroganov Central School of Industrial Art. There were shops and offices on the first and second floors and the rest were apartments for a rent. Revenues from rent were used for the maintenance of the Stroganov School Museum.

The building has an unusual layout of an open trapezoidal shape. This shape allowed the most efficient use of allocated area of land under construction. But at the same time it doesn’t create a yard-well, so all the rooms in the house are well ventilated and illuminated.

The fine majolica panels made from the drawings by Fyodor Schechtel are preserved on the facade. The overall appearance of the house reflects the ideas of a modern era - the beauty and harmony of the world.

Today, the building houses only commercial and office spaces.

The Teahouse on Myasnitskaya street

This unordinary house was built in 1890-1893’s as per the project of an architect Roman Klein for the tea merchant Sergey Perlov. The first floor was for the tea shop, and other floors were occupied by profitable apartments and the host’s own apartment.

Originally, the house did not simulate Chinese architecture. In 1896, the foreside of the building got a Chinese style due to the architect Karl Gippius. It was at that time when the Chinese chancellor Li Hongzhang was supposed to visit Moscow. The front side of the house became a sort of advertisement of Perlov’s company. The merchant expected that when the chancellor would see his home he would definitely visit it, so Perlov would be able to sign some bumper contracts for tea trade. But it so happened that Li Hongzhang did not make it to visit Sergey Perlov. However, it should be noted that it did not prevent the business of Perlov from successful prosperity. Tea trade has never been stopped at this house; of course, during the Soviet times the store was nationalized, but the tea trade continued and has continued up to this day.

The Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture

The building was built at the turn of 1780-1790’s by the Russian architect Vasily Bazhenov for the general-poruchik Ivan Yushkov. This house, with a spectacular monumental rotunda at the corner and symmetrical wings, is a vivid example of Moscow classicism.

In the mid-19th century, an advanced school of art of the Russian Empire was created there - the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture which the greatest Russian painters Vasily Perov, Alexei Savrasov, Isaac Levitan, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin graduated.

In 1920, they organized the Higher Art and Technical Studios on the base of the school which was called Vkhutemas. These studios became an experimental platform for the development of avant-garde art in Soviet Russia. Internationally renowned avant-garde architects worked here, namely Konstantin Melnikov, Nikolai Ladovsky, El Lissitzky, the Vesnin brothers, the founder of design and advertising in the USSR Alexander Rodchenko and his wife Varvara Stepanova, and many others.

The Post Office

The massive gray building with a light dome, stands out from all of the buildings on the street, it’s a former Chief Imperial Post Office.

The building of the post office was built in 1912 by architect O. Munz and engineer A. Novikov, the facade of the building was done by the Vesnin brothers in the Romanesque style. The post office was designed in a way so that its layout corresponded exactly to its functions.There is a large operating room up of a height of the entire building in its center. Above it there is a unique steel structure with a light developed by the great Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov.

Now the building is in disrepair and closed to entry.

The "Chistye Prudy" Metro Station Pavilion

The decision to build Metro in Moscow was made in 1931 after the population of the capital had increased several times and the city was stuck in endless traffic jams.

The Metro station Chistye Prudy was opened on May 15, 1935 as part of the first segment of the Moscow Metro "Sokolniki" - "Park Kultury" with branch "Okhotny Ryad" - "Smolenskaya".

The ground pavilion is made of laconic forms of Soviet Art Deco. The side facades are decorated with round-porthole windows. A notable detail is the unique inscription "Metro" on the front preserved since the construction of the pavilion to the present day.

If you came to Moscow as a tourist, start your first walk
with Mama Ro - we created the optimum and most interesting
route from Chistye Prudy to the Kremlin. In 2066 steps, totalling
about a 17-minute walk

We counted!

You can reach the Kremlin in 16 minutes 33 seconds with an average height of 175-180 cm. That, of course, is not that important: better to walk around slowly so that not to miss any of the beautiful places on this route.

, you are in the heart of the capital
on Red Square.

Don’t Forget Your Smartphone

We also marked the most interesting architectural sites and historical places on the route to make your trip even more fun so make sure to take your smartphone with you! Once you are on Red Square, use the map below – on it you will find some interesting facts about the architectural complex of the Kremlin and the objects around it. Don’t pay attention to the woods and fields surrounding the Kremlin – there is a famous saying in Russia, "Moscow was not built all at once." Our city is gradually always being built, and you will be able to see that for yourself. All in all, here you will find plenty of interesting things. Just take a look:


Kutafya (Predmostnaya) Tower

Kutafya tower was created in 1516 by Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin, its height is 13.5 meters. This tower is not high, but it is the smartest and most unusual.

The tower got its first name Predmostnaya (“In front of a bridge” in Russian) due to its location as it is located in front of the Troitsky Bridge and was once surrounded by a moat filled with the waters of the Neglinnaya River. When the attacks took place, the gate would be closed up with a lift part of the bridge and the tower became a serious obstacle to the fortress invaders.

As for the origin of the modern name, there are still debates. Some researchers believe that this name was given from the Russian word "kut" which means shelter or corner. But others believe that the word "Kutafya" means plump, clumsy woman.

Oruzheynaya (Konyushennaya) Tower

Oruzheynaya (Armory in Russian) tower was built in 1495 by Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin, its height is 38.9 meters.

The first name of the tower is came from the fact that in the 17th century it had a passing gate to a stable yard. The current name was given in the 19th century after the construction of the Armory.

Like all the towers of the Kremlin, in the 17th century the tower got its hipped roof. However, it has well preserved its medieval shapes. This is a massive quadrangle (quadrangular in terms of volume) complete with a combat area, subsequently, heightened by a tent with an observation zone.

Borovitskaya (Predtechenskaya [from the Russian word predtecha, the forerunner]) Tower

The tower was built in 1490 by the Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari and stands at a height of 50.7 meters.

Previously, the tower served as the entrance to the household section of the sovereign's estate. And today these are the only gates through which you can drive to the Kremlin by car.

There are two versions of the origin of its name. The first version is that it was named after the place where the tower is located. In this past time, the hill used to be covered with a forest (coniferous forest). The second version is connected with the place close to the location where taxes were taken or "bor" in old Russian. From the date of its construction the tower was named "Borovitskaya", however, in 1658, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich ordered to rename it to Predtechenskaya as the Church of John the Forerunner but the new name did not stick! And so far it is the only tower of the Kremlin which bears its first historical name.

Vodovzvodnaya (Water Pump) Tower

The Vodovzvodnaya tower was built in 1488, its height is 57,7 meters. The architect Anton Fryazin was taking care of its construction, here, for the first time in the Russian architecture history the decoration of the tower was made in the form of the “dovetail”, with which all the Kremlin walls were subsequently skirted.

Previously, there was a house of the Sviblov boyar family located nearby, this is where the tower got its first name (Sviblova) from. Its current name the tower received in 1633, after the water-supplying machine was installed inside it.

This was the first pumped water line in Russia. It was designed by an English engineer Christopher Galloway. With the help of this machine the water was drawn up to the Sytny and to the Kormovoy palace all the way to the royal gardens and water reservoirs. By the way, the original pipes were made of lead, which in that time was not yet known as a harmful metal, on the contrary it was considered as an attribute of wealth.

Annunciation (Blagoveschenskaya)Tower

Annunciation Tower was built in 1488 and presumably its author was the architect Anton Fryazin, but the precise data hasn’t been preserved. This is one of the low-rise towers of the Kremlin and its height is 30.7 meters.

It received its name for the the icon of the Annunciation of the Mother of God which, according to legend, miraculously appeared on the wall of the tower and rescued her imprisoned voevode (governor) from death. This happened during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, when the veovode was imprisoned in the dungeon tower on false and faked accusations. The tsar was going to execute him, but the prisoner spent his days in constant prayer and it helped him. When Ivan the Terrible found out about the miracle that happened, the prisoner’s sentence was immediately canceled.

Initially a wooden chapel was made for the icon on the tower. Later, in the 18th century a church was built there by the order of Empress Anna Ivanovna and part of the wall with the icon was built into it. A cross was installed above the hipped roof of the tower and a belfry under it.

However, in the rebellious 20th century, the Bolsheviks demolished the church and the miraculous icon sunk in the summer into oblivion.

Taynitskaya (Secret) Tower

Taynitskaya Tower was built in 1485 as the first of all the modern Kremlin’s towers. The architect was an Italian Anton Fryazin. The tower is 38,4 meters tall. Originally the tower had a gateway and a firing port. And in the 17th century it was equipped with a fire station.

The tower’s name is related to the word “secret” (“tainik” in Russian). During the construction, they dug a secret well and a secret tunnel that led towards the Moskva River, with the purpose of supplying the people with water in case of siege. There is also a theory that this underground passage was used for the secret raids and for the dispatch of the couriers. During the later investigations, it was found out that there were two underground passages leading from the bottom of the well. One lead to the Kremlin, and another to the other side of the Moskva River. During the Soviet time’s the gateway was covered in concrete by state security.

The First Nameless Tower

The First Nameless Tower was built in 1485-1488, its height is 34.13 meters.

This is an ordinary tower travel without gates but with a difficult fate. In the 15-16 centuries, gunpowder was stored in it which exploded in a fire and severely damaged the tower. It was said that its debris scattered onto the entire Kremlin. In the 18th century the tower was demolished due to the beginning of the construction of the Kremlin Palace of Vasily Bazhenov. The palace was not to appear, and the tower was erected again. In 1812, the tower had to experience a new challenge: a retreating French army blew up the tower. It was restored only in 1816-1835 by the architect Osip Beauvais who was involved in the reconstruction of Moscow after the Napoleon’s invasion.

The Second Nameless Tower

The Second Nameless tower was built in the 1480’s and is 30,2 meters tall. In the beginning of the 18th century the tower served as the function of a gate, which was bricked up later. The First Nameless tower, it was demolished for the construction of the Kremlin Palace as per the design of the architect Vasily Bazhenov. The palace was not finished, so the tower was soon restored.

Until 1917, with the permission of the local authorities, everyone could make a two-hour walk along the whole Kremlin wall. All the sightseers were accompanied by an old soldier. The eyewitnesses recalled that a chill crept from the walls inside the towers, as well as the silence, damp, moss and mold were all over the place.


A helicopter landing pad appeared in the Kremlin in 2013 has caused a lot of noise and disputes. This was primarily related to the status of the Kremlin which is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, meaning, any type of construction work is prohibited there.

But the helipad was still built anyway. It is intended for the President of Russia to have flights to the Kremlin. It is supposed that this pad will reduce traffic jams on the roads created by the President's motorcade, as they used to block the main highways for its passage. Now the MI-8 helicopter has become his means of transport.

Before the construction of this pad the presidents used the Ivanovskata square for landing. But this happened only a few times, as often flights would harm the Kremlin's architectural monuments.

Petrovskaya (Ugreshskaya) Tower

Petrovskaya Tower was built in 1480’s, its height is 27.15 meters.

His first name was named after the church in town of the Ugreshi Monastery and the second name was came from the church in honor of the first Moscow Metropolitan Peter which was built with no travelling gates.

However, the tower has reached us not in its original form. The first time it suffered in 1612 during the Polish intervention, the second time it was pulled down together with the church in 1771 to construct the Kremlin Palace of Vasily Bazhenov. Fortunately, the tower was soon restored, but not the church.Napoleon's invasion also affected the tower: it was blown up and was rebuilt in 1818.

Moskvoretskaya (Beklemishevskaya) Tower

Moskvoretskaya tower was designed by the Italian architect Marco Fryazin in 1487-1488 years, its height is 46, 2 meters.

This tower is the Kremlin’s frontline defense post as it would alway take the first blow. There is a natural barrier on the approach to the tower which is the Moscow River, but for greater protection, earlier in this same place, was another lower fortress wall in front of the Kremlin walls.The tower was called Beklemishevskaya and was by the adjacent house of Boyar Ivan Beklemishev, which later turned into a prison for the disgraced boyars. The modern name of the tower was given because it was located near by Moskvoretskiy bridge.

Konstantino-Eleninskaya Tower (Timofeevskaya) Tower

This tower was built in 1490 by architect Pietro Antonio Solari on the spot of the Timofeevskaye gates next to the ancient white stone Kremlin. Its height is 36.8 meters.

It was named after the Church of Konstantine and Elena which was located next to it.

The Konstantino-Eleninskaya Tower is known for its sad past. In the late 18th century, the famous "Constantine torture-chamber" was located in its turret. In the basement of the tower were dungeons which were a prison. They said that few people could stay more than a day in the torture-chamber and that others were simply going crazy.

Nabatnaya Tower

Nabatnaya tower was built in the 1490s, its height is 38 meters.

Its name came from the fact that it had a Spassky alarm bell. The old Russian word “nabat” means “alarm”. This bell was often used to alarm citizens that there was a fire or an invasion of enemy troops. The Kremlin had two more alarm bells: in the Troitskaya and Taynitskaya towers. The way the bells rang had special sounds with which it became possible to determine where the fire or invasion were coming from.

If the fire was in the Kremlin, they had to "beat all three nabats on one edge right away". In the case of fire starting in Kitay Gorod, they had to "beat Spassky naba on one edge right away". In the case of the fire coming from Bely Gorod they had to "beat Spassky nabat in both edges and the nabat on the Troitsky bridge on both the edges but quieter". In the case of fire in Zemlyanoy Gorod - they beat "calmly, with rhythm and pauses" the bell in the Taynitskaya tower.

Spasskaya (Frolovskaya) Tower

Spasskaya Tower was built in 1491 by the architect Pietro Antonio Solari. Its height is 71 meters (including the star on the top of it). This is the main front gate of the Kremlin!

Originally the tower was named after the Saint Frol and Lavr church, then in 1658 the tower’s name was changed to Spasskaya due to the two icons - an Icon of the Saviour Not Made by Hands and an Icon of Smolensky Saviour, which were mounted above the front gate.

Spasskaya Tower is a symbol of Russia; it holds a sacred meaning to the inhabitants of our country. This is because its clock takes the count of the New Year!

The first chimes of the tower were designed in 1624 by an Englishman Christopher Galloway and they were telling only the day and night time. The present-day clock was made in 1851-1852 by the Butenop brothers from Denmark, Nicholas and Ivan. The chimes are located right on three floors. In 1917, while the bolsheviks attempted to take over the Kremlin, a stray shell hit the clock, seriously damaging its mechanism, so it remained static for almost a year! But, luckily, the new government decided to repair the clock, so it keeps telling the Moscow time to the present day.

Царская башня

The Tsar’s Tower is a small tower which was built the last, in the1680’s. It’s even difficult to call it a tower, since it is placed right on the wall and it looks like an ornamental little palace called terem in Russian. Its height together with the weathercock is 16,7 meters.

Legend has it that previously there was a wooden turret from which the Tsar had a habit of observing what was happening on Red Square. This is where its name comes from. According to another legend, that exactly from this place, Ivan the Terrible was observing the construction of the St. Basil’s Cathedral.

Senatskaya (Senate) Tower

The Senatskaya Tower was built in 1490-s by the architect Pietro Antonio Solari. It is 34 meters in height. This tower was exclusively defensive in nature and was remained nameless for a long time. It was given its present name only in the end of the 18th century after the Kremlin Senate building was constructed. In 1918 a bas-relief, “for the fallen for peace and brotherhood of nations” designed by an architect Sergey Konenkov, was installed over the tower in a memory of the fallen fighters of the October Revolution. This plaque was removed afterwards and was given to a museum.

Lenin's Mausoleum

Lenin's Mausoleum is a stone tomb on Red Square where the body of the world’s proletariat leader Lenin has been kept for more than 80 years.

According to a legend, the architect Alexei Shchusev told his confessor before the revolution that the had finished the project of his 99th temple. After that, the old man said that as soon as he finished his one hundredth temple, he would be canonized. Ironically,the one hundredth turned out to be the mausoleum.

Immediately after the death of the leader, Shchusev was charged in the shortest possible time to design and build a tomb for the solemn farewell to Vladimir Lenin's body. The first mausoleum was built in less than 4 days. It was a wooden cube on which there was a small three-stage construction.

Three months later, a large wooden mausoleum was built which had the usual outline of a multistage pyramid. And five years later, in 1929, the new concrete mausoleum lined with granite was created which is the one we see today.

In 1953, after Joseph Stalin's death, his body was placed in the mausoleum as well. However, after debunking the cult of the leader’s personality in 1961, the body of Joseph Stalin was promptly carried out and buried near the Kremlin wall overnight.

Saint Basil’s Cathedral

Cathedral of the Intercession of the Virgin by the Moat – that is the original name of the one of the most famous monuments of the Russian and world architecture. It was constructed from 1555 to 1561 next to the moat that originally ran beside the eastern wall of the Kremlin on the order of the Tsar Ivan the Terrible in honor of a military conquest of the city of Kazan.

The architects were Barma and Postnik. Legend has it that after the cathedral was complete, Ivan had the architects blinded in order to prevent them from building a more magnificent building for anyone else.

Originally the cathedral made up of 9 chapels and a bell tower. In 1588 a small chapel was added over the tomb of Basil the Blessed. Basil in his lifetime was known by the muscovites as a holy fool of Christ and as a prophet. At his funeral Ivan the Terrible and the boyars as well, carried Basil’s coffin to the cemetery and the Metropolitan of Moscow Macarius performed a funeral service. Eventually Basil became one of the most popular saints of Moscow and people began to call the cathedral after him.

During the Soviet times the cathedral was opened as a division of the State Historical Museum and in the middle of the 30’s it was in danger of being destroyed, it was cleared of the dome in order to prepare for its demolition. But, fortunately, the famous architect Pyotr Baranovsky took up the cudgels for the cathedral. Unafraid of the consequences, he sent a telegram to Joseph Stalin asking to prevent the demolition of the cathedral. And it was spared! Nowadays, the Saint Basil’s cathedral has been reopened for worship.

GUM (Upper Trading Rows)

Trading on the territory of the GUM has been taking place since the XV century. Originally there were wooden stores and then there were stone buildings, which were rebuilt several times. In 1887, a competition on the new building of the trading rows was held in which the project of Alexander Pomerantsev won.

The architect moved away from the classical tradition in the direction of pseudo-Russian style, and thanks to the engineers, Vladimir Shukhov and Artur Loleit, the rows got a translucent glass covered roof. There were 1,200 stores in the building, three meeting halls (a movie theater was soon created in one of them), an electric power station, and an artesian well for their water supply.

After the revolution, the building was used for apartments of prominent party leaders and various offices. In the early 50's, the rows have been restored and begun to wear a new name - GUM – which is an abbreviation in Russian for the State Department Store. But this abbreviation can be interpreted differently and this is why there is another unofficial name this store which is the Major Department Store in Moscow. During the Soviet times, every guest of the capital considered it a duty to visit this store as there they would be able to find and get scarce goods. Even today the GUM remains a popular store both for Muscovites and tourists.

The Resurrection (Iberian) Gates

The Resurrection Gates were built in 1535-38 as part of the Kitai-Gorod wall. They are located between the State Duma and the Historical Museum and separate the Manege and Red Squares. In 1680, the gates changed their appearance: stone chambers with high hipped roofs were built over the arch passage. The names were also changed several times. They were originally called the “Neglinny” Gates due to the nearby river, after Kuryatniye (in Russian “hen”) where trade row hens were sold, and “Lion” thanks to the menagerie where lions were kept at the times of Ivan the Terrible. In the beginning of the XVIII century, an icon of the Resurrection was placed on the tower and the gates were named Ressurection. They are also often called “Iberian” thanks to the 1669 chapel of the Iberian Mother of God that is adjacent to it.

In 1931, the gates together with the Iberian chapel were dismantled and vehicular traffic was organized through the Red Square. Fortunately, the gates were fully restored in 1995.

The State Historical Museum

The decision to establish a historical museum was made in 1872. Most of its collection was comprised of artifacts from the Polytechnic Exhibition dedicated to the Crimean War of 1853-1856. The construction of the museum began in 1885, the authors of the project were the architect Vladimir Shervud and engineer Anatoly Semenov. This building is made in the pseudo-Russian style, its facade is decorated with fine décor, and the two main towers are crowned with double-headed eagles and the rest is decorated with heraldic figures of lions and unicorns.

One of the first elevators in Moscow was installed in the museum in 1912. The elevator Milan "Stiegler" factory.The elevator still works, however, it is rarely used.

During the Soviet regime the museum building lost its original appearance: many of the mural paintings and interior details were destroyed, the double-headed eagles, lions and unicorns were removed from the tops of the towers. Only in the 90’s of the last century a comprehensive restoration of the building was started. And in 2003, the museum was completely returned to its historical appearance.

Nikolskaya Tower

Nikolskaya tower was built in 1491 by Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari, its height with the star is 70,4 meters.

The tower was named after the icon of St. Nicholas, which is located above the gates of the tower. The road through the gates led to the boyars and monasteries of the Kremlin, and where the Tsarina, Tsarevnas and pilgrims got in and out of the Kremlin. The so-called "scientists street" started from the Nikolskiye Gates. There were two monasteries, the first printing-house, and the first seminary built on this street.

During the retreat of Napoleon's troops in 1812, the tower was blown up and, thus, very badly damaged. The remarkable architect Osip Beauvais was in charge of its restoration in 1816-1819. He gave the tower neo-Gothic look and it was painted white.

Corner Arsenalnaya (Sobakin) Tower

Arsenal Tower was built by an Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari in 1492 and stands at a height of 60.2 meters.

The first name of the tower comes from a legend saying that the tower was adjacent to the courtyard of Sobakins boyars but no evidence of that remains today. The tower got its current name from the Arsenal building which was built nearby.

This corner tower, the most powerful tower of the Kremlin, was the final line of defense on the side of the Red Square. It also regulated the Neglinnaya river crossing. This towers has a secret as well: a secret well was placed in it to supply the Kremlin forces with water in case of a siege. In addition, they discovered a secret underground passage to the Neglinnaya River, which was subsequently laid.

Middle Arsenal Tower

The Middle Arsenal Tower was built in 1495 on the site of the Kremlin corner tower from the times of Dmitry Donskoy, its height is 38,9 meters. It was given its present name after the Arsenal building located nearby.

In 1821, an Italian grotto was constructed by an architect Joseph Bové at the foot of the tower. Its more well-known name is “The Ruins”. The fragments of the Moscow buildings, destroyed during the Napoleon invasion in 1812, were used to create the grotto. According to Bové, this grotto should symbolize the resurrection of Moscow from ruins.

Arsenal Building

The construction of Arsenal started in 1701 by the decree of Peter the Great. This building was conceived as a "zeughaus" which means a weapons’ house in German. It was intended for the storage of weapons and war trophies.

The Construction of Arsenal went wrong from the beginning and continued for a long time. First there wasn’t enough money, then a major fire destroyed the roof and during the War of 1812 and a part of the building was blown up. However, Arsenal has always been restored with only changes of the internal layout and decoration of the facade.

In the mid-19th century, it was planned to make it into a museum about the War of 1812. That’s why the captured cannons were displayed along the facade. But the museum wasn’t created in the end but the cannons are still there. Today, the building is barracks for the Kremlin Regiment.

Troitskaya (Trinity) Tower

The Troitskaya Tower was built in 1495-1499 by an Italian architect Aloisio da Milano (Aleviz Fryazin Milanets), the tower together with the star on its top is 80 meters tall. This is the highest tower of the Moscow Kremlin!

The tower received its current name in 1658 after the mission of the Trinity Monastery, and before that the gates had changed from many different names. First, they were called Karetnye, then Rizopolozhenskie, then Znamenskie, then Bogoyavlenskie.

The Troitskie (Trinity) Gates are the second most important after the Spasskie Gates. They were intended for the passage of the patriarch, the queens and the princesses. Many significant moments are tied to this gate. In 1612, the shameful boyar government, which carried off Russia to the intervention, came out from here and surrendered. The lords along with the Polish intervenors took refuge in the Kremlin. And on the 2nd of September the troops of Napoleon entered the Kremlin through this gate, and through them they left the city burnt on the 11th.

The Kremlin

The Kremlin is the oldest part of the city. The first fortifications on Borovitsky Hill appeared in 1156 and occupied only the south-western part. The city was quickly developing and expanding, and in 1340, by order of Prince Ivan Kalita, wooden towers and walls were built around the hill. In 1367, under Dmitry Donskoy, a Russian master, begin to erect the walls and towers of white stone.

The Kremlin got its modern look in the 15th century when Prince Ivan III invited the best Italian architects to Moscow who, in 1485, started large-scale construction. The boundaries of the Kremlin increased significantly:, there they built 2235 meters of walls and 20 towers made of red brick. There’s an interesting fact that in the XVIII century the Kremlin was whitewashed and remained white until the mid XX century. In 1947, the Kremlin buildings were restored to celebrate the 800th anniversary of Moscow. Then, by the order of Stalin walls and towers were repainted in red which was an ideologically true color and so it remains red to this day.

The famous stars appeared on the Spasskaya, Nikolskaya, Troitskaya and Borovitskaya towers of the Kremlin in 1935, just after the symbols of the imperial power, the double-headed eagles, were removed from them. The first stars were made of stainless steel which were coated with gold and the hammer and sickle were placed in the center and were inlaid with Ural semi-precious stones. However, a year later due to dirt in the air, the gems faded and ceased to shine, and the stars were dismantled. The new stars of ruby glass with internal lighting were produced and installed. Later, there also appeared a fifth star on the Vodovzvodnaya tower.

The Patriarch's Palace and the Church of the Twelve Apostles

The palace was built by the architects Antip Konstantinov and Bazhen Ogurtsov in 1653-1656 by the decree of the Patriarch Nikon. At that moment, Nikon had great influence and power, so he was built a magnificent palace which, they say, was not inferior to the sovereign's palace in splendor and size.There were private rooms in the Patriarch: a dining room, bedroom, office, treasury, a hall for receptions the Cross Chamber, various premises, including bakeries, wineries and more.

But in 1721, after the abolition of the patriarchate, the palace was taken over by the Moscow Synodal office and the chambers lost their former glory. A huge Chrism oven for making the holy myrrh (aromatic oil) was installed in the Cross Chamber. It an important attribute in Christianity which is used in the sacrament of Confirmation. Every three years the priests gathered here in order to cook the myrrh and then it was sent across the country. Hence the Russian proverb "We are all spread by one myrrh" (Tarred with the same brush).

Today, the Cross Chamber is a place of the exhibition of the everyday life objects of the 17th century. One of the most interesting exhibits is a silver baby rattle made by German craftsmen. There is also a variety of jewelry, tableware and household items brought from other countries and made by skilled Russian craftsmen.

The Chudov (comes from the word in Russian that means miracle) Monastery
The monument is lost

This is one of the oldest monasteries of the Moscow Kremlin. According to a legend, when the Khan of the Golden Horde Janibek heard that God works miracles after the prayers of the Metropolitan Alexy, he asked the Moscow Duke to send the Horde a saintly man to pray for the queen Taydule who was blinded three years prior. The Metropolitan Alexy came to the Horde, lit a candle and sprinkled holy water on the Tatar Queen and Taydula recovered her sight. In gratitude, Khan Janibek reduced the amount of the tribute for Russians and the queen offered the Metropolitan Alexy the Khan's deputies’ court. In 1365, the Chudov Monastery was erected in this place.

In 1378, the Metropolitan Alexy died and was buried in the church. The representatives of many princely and boyar families were also buried in the monastery (the tsar's rich deposits were also kept in the sacristy of the monastery) and the monastery’s library became one of the largest book depositories in Russia. In 1919, the monastery was closed and the premises of the monastery were used for the «Communist» Cooperative, nurseries and hut-reading room. In 1929, the Chudov monastery was completely demolished and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was built in its spot.

Today, negotiations are underway with a vision for a possible recovery of the Chudov Monastery in the same place, and one of the buildings of the Presidium was already preliminarily demolished for this purpose.

Taynitsky garden

In the 14th century the Kremlin was damaged by fire. Then, the Prince Dmitry Donskoy decided to build new fortifications and to expand the territory of the Kremlin. Thus, a garden appeared named by analogy with the Taynitskaya tower.

Before the revolution in the Taynitskom garden the Church of Konstantine and Elena and Cathedral of the Annunciation were there along with a yard where bread was stored for the royal court. The Bolsheviks abolished both the church and the cathedral. Until the mid 60’s in its place New Year concerts for children were held there.

But the most remarkable place in the territory of the garden is an oak "Cosmos". It was planted on April 14, 1961 by the first astronaut Yuri Gagarin.

The Monument to Tsar Alexander II
Monument is lost

On March, 1881 in St. Petersburg, Tsar Alexander II was mortally wounded. A bomb was thrown at him by terrorists-members of "Narodnaya Volya". This event caused major resonance, and representatives of the higher circles of the society proposed the creation of a monument to the great emperor.

This was followed by a few competitions which did not bring the desired results. In autumn 1889, the artist Peter Zhukovsky (the son of the poet Vasily Zhukovsky) created a sketch of the monument in which the tsar Alexander III was described with the following words: "Simple and holy". Nicholas Sultanov was responsible for the detailed design of the project and the statue of the emperor was created by a sculptor Alexander Opekushin.

The figure of the Emperor was placed under the shade of a tent, which was surrounded on three sides by a low gallery. Its arches were decorated with 33 mosaic portraits of the Russian tsars. The idea of positioning the statue on the bastion was so that it could be hanging over the Kremlin hill - this was a successful conception by Zhukovsky. The city received a fantastic viewing platform on Zamoskvorechye together with the monument.

Unfortunately, the monument did not last long. In 1918, it was thrown from the pedestal and crashed, the pedestal was demolished in 1928.

The Tsar Bell

The Tsar Bell is the most famous bell in Russia and the largest bell in the world! Its history dates back to the reign of Boris Godunov and is full of drama. It was broken and recast several times. The modern bell was cast in 1735 by the famous Russian caster Ivan Motorin and his son Michael. It was made directly in the Kremlin in a special casting pit.

But the bell was never raised to the belfry and never rang. The thing is that in 1737 there was the major Trinity fire in the Kremlin and the bell was still in the pit. When they tried to extinguish the fire , the water spilled on the molten metal and so the bell was cracked and, thus, a metal piece of about two-meters in height broke off.

Only one hundred years later, Nicholas I ordered to lift the bell out of the pit and place it on a pedestal.

The Tsar Cannon

The Tsar Cannon got its name because thanks to its huge size its weight is about 40 tons! It was produced by a Russian skillful caster Andrey Chokhov in 1586 in the Cannon yard in Moscow.

Tsar Cannon has the glory of a gun that was never fired. For a long time it was thought that this is a purely decorative weapon designed to intimidate foreigners. However, the study that was conducted in the late 20th century showed that the Tsar Cannon had been shot at least once. And it turned out that this was not even a cannon but a bombard designed to fire stone balls.

Ivan the Great’s Bell Tower with the Assumption Belfry and the Filaret Annex

The bell tower, built in 1505-1508, marked the beginning of the formation of Cathedral Square. This amazing structure, 60 meters high, was created by the Italian architect, Bon Fryazin.

At the end of the 16th century Boris Godunov ordered to raise the bell tower so they built on a building with a high drum with a gilded dome. At this time its height was 81 meters. Thus, Ivan the Great’s Bell Tower became not only the tallest building in Moscow, but the city's main tower from which they were observing the borders and watching for urban fires. Ivan’s pillar has become a symbol not only of Moscow but of all of Russia. There was even a special order forbidding to build buildings higher than this belfry.

But there was a man who dared to break this rule. That was Prince Alexander Menshikov who built a house church higher than the belfry. People immediately considered it as a bad omen. And, indeed, lightning struck it and burned the upper tier. Later Menshikov himself fell into disgrace. Thus, Ivan the Great’s Bell Tower for a long time remained the tallest building in Moscow.

The Cathedral of the Assumption

For more over than 4 centuries the Cathedral of the Assumption was a religious and political center of Russia. All the metropolitans and patriarchs were consecrated here. Here official announcements and prayer services before and after battles, in honor of a victory, were being made. Here the Tsars were crowned and the people took oaths to the country.

Here in 1326, the foundation stone cathedral was laid and, shortly after, consecrated. It stood for 145 years, but eventually had begun to dilapidate, so in 1472 the cathedral was dismantled. In the same year it was decided to build a new cathedral. The construction lasted for two years, when the walls were already done and the workers had already started with the fornication, and on the night of the 21st of May, 1474, the building suddenly collapsed. There are several explanations of this tragedy. According to some sources, it was collapsed due to an earthquake, according to another sources – due to negligence of the Russian architects.

To complete the construction a foreign architect was invited, his name was Aristotle Fioravanti from Italy. The new cathedral was consecrated in 1479. The walls were made of white stone and the arches were made of brick. It looks monolithic enough (even in the ancient manuscripts a phrase “like one stone” might be found), but at the same time you can find an elegant simplicity in its architecture.

Currently, there are the services carried out in the cathedral sometimes, but it continues to function as a museum, so there it is possible to see the unique and the most venerated icons and relics.

The Cathedral of the Archangel

The Cathedral of the Archangel is the second largest cathedral in the Kremlin. It was also constructed under the supervision of a foreigner – an Italian architect named Aloisio the New. There is a very interesting element in the architecture of the temple, white stone shells in the Cathedral arches, which has become widespread in Russian architecture.

The Archangel Cathedral is the necropolis for the Russian princes and tsars. There are 9 generations buried of Daniel Aleksandrovich (Rurik) and first representatives of the Romanov dynasty.

It was here, in the Cathedral of the Archangel, the Russian princes and tsars gave the oath of allegiance to each other by kissing the cross on the graves of their ancestors. They came here during the days of remembrance, as well as when they were going to the battlefield. There was a custom in the grand-ducal family: when there were some difficulties, the princes would ask their dead father for help by praying to them.

Here are the tombs of Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan who are associated with a remarkable history. There is a widespread theory that Ivan the Terrible killed his son with a crooked staff, a crook, by hitting him in the head. In the middle of the 20th century, this version was questioned, as there was an assumption that he might have died from being poisoned. Their tombs were opened with the permission of Nikita Khrushchev. Scientists were disappointed though as the remains almost didn't preserve because of the lack of access of water and air to the tomb, thus, they couldn't solve the mystery of his son's death. Although, thanks to this story sculptors were able to accurately recreate the portrait of Ivan the Terrible.

The Palace of the Facets

The Palace of the Facets was the ceremonial throne room of the Russian tsars and is the only remaining building from the large princely palace of Ivan III. Foreign ambassadors were received there as well as important state events and large ceremonial receptions were also held in this place.

The royal feasts that were held here were unique and known for their unprecedented wealth and splendor and lasted an average of 10-12 hours. The most important ceremonies would begin with the carrying-out of the ritual meal - a roasted swan. If they were receiving a foreign guest, the feast would begin in silence, but after five hours of ceremonies according to the memoirs of one of the ambassadors, "we significantly brightened up, the conversation went more fun and the Russians started feeling freer."

Also, the Boyar Duma had visited the Palace of the Facets. The remarkable Zemsky Sobor of 1613, which elected Mikhail Romanov to the throne took place there as well.

The Cathedral of the Annunciation

The Cathedral of the Annunciation is the home church of Russian sovereigns. It was intended for home ceremonies such as confessions and communions for sovereigns, and baptisms and wedding ceremonies for the tsars’ children and so on. The temple was also the place of storage of the Great Treasury.

Initially the cathedral was part of the Great Palace connected by a stairway passage. It is interesting that the story of the Kremlin Clock has started with the palace and cathedral. Already in 1404, the clock, with a mechanical figure of a man who struck the gavel at the end of each hour, was set behind the wooden (at that time) cathedral. It is in this way Moscow has begun to know the exact time.

Before the revolution, during the Temple Day Holiday, the tsar was feeding the poor and,according to the remaining eyewitnesses, a fish soup of fried carps and perches was served more often.

The State Kremlin Palace - The Palace of Congresses

The most ambiguous and controversial Kremlin building, stylistically much of it sticks out of the ensemble as it is different from the rest. This glass, parallelepiped, was built in 1961 by architect Mikhail Posokhin and at the personal initiative of the General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev.The old building of the Armory and cavalry corps were demolished for its construction.

The building was primarily intended for party congresses, as well as various social and political events, for example, the famous World Congress of Women took place there. Now lush concerts are held there and one of the most important events for the children of our country - the main New Year Tree Concert.

The Grand Kremlin Palace

The Grand Kremlin Palace is located in the place where the Grand Palace that was first made of wood and then of stone and was where the Russian princes lived. This modern building now unites these buildings of five centuries all under one roof. It was built in 1838 - 1849 under the management of Konstantin Thon who was the court architect of Nicholas I.

The Grand Kremlin Palace is the main residence of the Russian President, and once it was the residence of Russian emperors. The royal family would stay there when they were in Moscow. The solemn coronations of Emperor Alexander I, Alexander II and Alexander III took place there as well. And today, important government negotiations, state award ceremonies and presidential inaugurations are held there.

The Terem Palace

The Terem Palace was built in 1635 on the basement of the palace of Ivan III by the best Russian architects of the time: Bazhen Ogurtsov, Antip Konstantinov, Trefil Sharutin, and Larion Ushakov. Originally it was intended for amusement and entertainment for the sons of Tsar Mikhail Romanov but when his son Alex came to the throne, he began to live there with his family.

The Terem Palace had a traditional (for Russia at that time) division of living space into male and female chambres. The tsar was occupied by important public affairs in his chambers during daytime and in the evenings he would come to his family. A woman's life of a noble family, especially tsaritsas’, was quite secluded in the 17th century. In the old-fashioned customs tsaritsas spent most of the time in their chambres with their kids. If they needed to go somewhere, it was only in a closed carriage. Even when going to church they could only go by special indoor galleries and stand inside the church in a way so that they couldn’t be seen. Thus, the life of a tsaritsa of the pre-Petrine times was completely hidden from prying eyes, and there remained very little evidence of their everyday life.

The Amusement Palace

The Amusement Palace was built in 1652 for the private chambers of Boyar Ilya Miloslavsky. According to the preserved evidence, it was a four-storey tower with a very elegant facade with luxurious interiors. Subsequently, the building was reconstructed several times and changed its role.

As for the name "Amusement", it got it from the theatrical performances - the fun activities that were held there. It was the first palace officially permitted by the Church theatrical actions to hold performances here. Of course, there was also a folk theater which had the participation of the favorite characters Petrushka and skomorokhs, and trained bears and dogs, but all this was banned by the Church considered to be pagan remnants. On October 17, 1672 the first premiere of the play "Ahasuerus childhood" was right there. Since then, this day has been considered to be the birthday of Russian theater.

Komendantskaya (Kolymazhnaya) Tower

Komendantskaya (Commandant’s in Russian) Tower was built in 1495 by Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin, its height is 38.9 meters.

It used to be called Kolymazhnaya after the Kremlin’s coach yard where carriages and coaches had been kept. It was given its current name in the 19th century when the commandant of Moscow took up residence in the Kremlin’s Poteshny (Amusement in Russian) Palace.

There is the legend associated with this tower. They say that a pale woman with a gun in her hand lives there. She is a ghost of the famous terrorist Fanny Kaplan who made an attempt upon Vladimir Lenin’s life. She was shot and then burned at the Kremlin walls.

The Kremlin Armoury or Armoury Chamber

The Armoury Chamber is a treasure-house of a unique collection of works of arts and crafts of world importance. There we can see are jewels created in the Kremlin workshops or received as a gift from foreign states, royal ceremonial clothing and coronation dresses, a collection of carriages and more.

Initially, the treasures were kept in the Grand Ducal treasury, where ambassadors and honourable guests were invited to look at the wealth of the Moscow State. Some of the recollections of the foreigners were preserved saying that "the brilliance of the tsar’s court is so strong that it hurts when you look at it."

The oldest artifact in the collection is a silver jug from Constantinople made in 400. And the most famous, of course, is the Monomakh’s Cap, the coronation crown of Russian tsars.

Alexander Garden

Alexander Garden was created in 1821-1823 as a monument of the Patriotic War against Napoleon in 1812 and named in honor of the emperor-winner Alexander I. The park is located on the site of the riverbed of the Neglinnaya river and consists of three parts: the Upper, Middle and Lower Gardens. The author of the project was the famous architect Osip Bove.

In the Upper Garden, near the Eternal Flame, there one can find a remarkable monument made by the architect Sergey Vlasiev in 1914 in honor of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. This obelisk made of gray granite listed the names of prominent representatives of the Romanov dynasty. In the Soviet period, when all that was associated with the royal family was consistently destroyed, these names were erased and the names of revolutionary thinkers such as Marx, Engels, and others appeared instead. However, in 2013 the obelisk got back its historical appearance.

The Bolshoi Theatre

The history of the Bolshoi Theatre dates nearly 3 centuries since 1776. A modern theater building was built in 1858 in a classical style by the architect Alberto Cavos. It was built upon on the main walls and columns of the last theater building that had been previously burnt down. The most remarkable part of the exterior of the theater is a sculptural composition of an expressive quadriga driven by Apollo, the patron of the arts in Greek mythology. The creator of the composition is Peter Clodt. The interior of the hall is decorated in traditional red and gold tones.

The "Bolshoi" is a symbol of Russian culture and the most famous theater in Russia. It is there where all major Russian operas and ballets have been created and staged, and there where the most talented and famous actors, directors, conductors and musicians have worked and performed. Today, the Bolshoi Theatre’s productions are very popular all over the world.

Borovitskaya Square

Borovitskaya Square got its present appearance in the 1930’s when they demolished part of the house at the beginning of Znamenka Street. It was named after the Borovitskaya Kremlin tower which is located on the opposite side.

A large-scale reconstruction of the Borovitskaya Square was recently finished. A monument to Vladimir the Great who Christianized the Kievan Rus' was installed there. According to the idea of the architect, Ivan Kolmanoka and Alexander Tomashenko, concentric circles of stone steps diverge from the monument as if these the circles were on the water of the Dnieper in the first Christianization of Rus' in 988.

The Pashkov House

The Pashkov House was built in the classical style in 1784-1786 and presumably was designed by the architect Vasily Bazhenov as an urban estate for the nobleman Peter Pashkov.

The picturesque location on Starovagankovsky hill; harmonious proportions, and elegant belvedere with a beautiful view of the city made this building one of the main attractions of Moscow.

In 1861, the Rumyantsev Museum was opened in this building. Its book funds formed the basis of the Russian State Library (RSL) built nearby during the Soviet Times and is the largest library in Europe. Today in Pashkov house are located Manuscripts and Music Departments of the RSL.

The Hotel Metropol

The Hotel Metropol is one of the most successful examples of Art Nouveau in Moscow. Its architects are William Walcot, Lev Kekushev, Nikolai Sheviakov and others. It was built in 1899-1905 years by order of the entrepreneur, the famous art patron Savva Morozov.

He planned to build a hotel and entertainment center with a theater, a concert hall, a winter garden, an exhibition hall and even a platform for roller skating. However, not all the ideas were put into practice, only the hotel was built.

The creators wanted to express the idea of a synthesis of the arts in the architectural appearance of the building, so there are many used ceramic panels in the design on the facades, the most famous of which is the "Princess of Dreams" by Mikhail Vrubel, bas-relief "Seasons" by Nikolai Andreyev and even a quote by Friedrich Nietzsche, "The old story again! When we have finished building our house, we suddenly notice that we have learned something in the process", which in Soviet times was replaced with a Lenin quote "Only a dictatorship of the proletariat is able to free humanity from the yoke of the capital".

Red Square

Red Square is the heart of Moscow, the most beautiful and famous Russian area. The square was formed at its current location in the late 15th century, when trade zone was moved behind the Kremlin wall. First, the square was called the Great bargain, then Troitskaya and Fire, and in the 17th century it became known as the Krasnaya (red in Russian) which means "beautiful" in Old Russian.

Red Square from its inception has become the center of national life. In addition, it was a place of trade, here meetings of merchants and boyars were held, important country issues were discussed, the tsar's decrees were read out, and ceremonies and processions were held.

Today the area remained its central importance, though it became mostly a tourist spot. It hosts various fairs and concerts, offers a winter skating rink, fireworks are organized for important city and country holidays. It is on the Red Square where the parade is annually held on the Day of Victory in the Great Patriotic War.

Lobnoye Mesto

Lobnoye Mesto is a circular platform of wild ashlar and white stone. It appeared in the 16th century: according to one theory, in 1512 in honor of the victory over the Tatars, and according to another; in 1549, when Russia held the first congress of representatives of all classes - the Zemsky Sobor.

There are still debates about the origin of the name "Lobnoye Mesto". According to one version, it is a translation from Hebrew into Slavic of the word "Golgotha". Another version suggests that it dates back to the word "forehead" and the phrase "cut the foreheads". That is why many people believe that the Lobnoye Mesto was used to carry out public executions. In fact, a few executions took place there: schismatic Nikita Pustosvyat was executed in 1682 and in 1698 executions in suppressing the Streletsky uprising were also carried out there. On the whole, this place served as a platform and was intended for the announcements of royal decrees and sentences, tsars and priests appealed to the people, the place was used to announce the beginning of wars and the peace, and was also an exhibition of the miraculous icons and relics of saints.

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the Eternal Flame

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is located at the main entrance of the Alexander Garden. The monument was erected on May 8, 1967 on the 22nd anniversary of Victory. The creators of the memorial are D. Burdin, V. Klimov, Y. Rabayev and N. Tomskiy.

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is a tribute to the memory of the Great Patriotic War, one of the most important events in the history of the state.

The real buried remains of the Unknown Soldier lie there and the eternal flame symbolizes the eternal memory of those who died in the Great Patriotic War.

A Guard of Honour guards the monument daily from 8am (08:00) till 8pm (20:00). A solemn Changing of the Guard Ceremony takes place every hour.

To the right of the tomb, lining the walkway are porphyry blocks with incapsulated soils from 12 cities who awarded the title "Hero City" which is the highest degree of distinction for cities renowned for their heroic defense during the Great Patriotic War.

The River Neglinnaya

Neglinnaya or Neglinka is the third-longest river in Moscow. Its name most likely comes from the Finno-Ugric word "Negley", which means larch (“listvennitsa” in Russian), that is the river Listvyanka. The second version, which is popular among the people, is that it was called so because the bottom of the river was non-clay (“neglinnistiy” in Russian).

Neglinnaya originates at the Maryina roshcha district and flows to the Kremlin. Once the river played an important role in the life of the town: it performed a defensive function protecting the approach to the Kremlin from the west and northwest; it was the place for fishing, it was also used for production purposes and economic needs.

Today the river flows almost entirely in the reservoir underground. It concluded there for several reasons. Firstly, Neglinka was the cause of many floods in Moscow, and secondly, due to the unfavorable ecological conditions of the water and its adjoining areas poured filth and threw garbage in the river.

In 1997, during the reconstruction of the Manezhnaya Square they created an imitation on the former bed of the Neglinnaya as if a part of the river was released from the pipe and was flowing along the tiled bottom, but in fact the water there is not a part of the river. There are guided tours today in the underground reservoir where the real Neglinnaya is still hidden.

The Upper Saviour Cathedral

The Upper Saviour Cathedral is a house church of the Russian Tsars and was built in the 1635-1636 on the east side of the Terem Palace by the architects B. Ogurtsov, A. Konstantinov, T.Sharutinym and L.Ushakov. The Cathedral has reached our time in a heavily modified appearance.

In 1682 the architect Osip Startsev carried out a reconstruction of the Upper Saviour Cathedral and the Terem churches: the Churches of Evdokia (Resurrection) and the Crucifixion Church and a chapel located nearby. They were united under one roof and topped with 11 domes on sophisticated drums. The drums and frieze were decorated with multicolored ceramic tiles. Thanks to these changes the Cathedral obtained a very special, beautiful and memorable look. Together with the Terem Palace, it has become a symbol of the Kremlin of the 17th century.

The Church of the Deposition of the Robe

This elegant one-domed church was built in 1485 by the Pskov architects Krivtsov and Myshkin in honour of the salvation from the Tartar prince Mazowsze raiding, and was named after the feast of Laying Our Lady’s Holy Robe. Until the mid-XVII century, it was the home church of first Russian metropolitans and then later the patriarchs. Subsequently, the church was taken over by the royal family and was connected with the tsaritsas and princesses’ chambers.

Like all the churches of the Moscow Kremlin, the Church of the Deposition of the Robe was desecrated and ransacked with the advent of the Soviet power. They even used the church to store the potatoes for the Kremlin dining room! But, fortunately, the unique iconostasis created in 1627 under the direction of the Russian artist Nazariy Istomin Savin has remained.

Today it houses a rare collection of temple wooden sculptures from the XV-XIX centuries which is a little-known Russian religious art.

The Ascension Convent
The monument is lost

The Ascension Convent was founded in 1386 by Princess Eudoxia, the wife of Dmitry Donskoy. It was located near the Spasskaya Tower and bordered the Kremlin wall.

The first convent church was made of wood, later three stone cathedrals were built there: Ascension, Church of Michael Malein and Catherine's church was built in 1808-1817 by Carlo Rossi in the neo-Gothic style. This was the only building by the wonderful Italian architect in Moscow.

The Ascension convent was a necropolis for women of the royal family. Here a Byzantine princess, the wife of Ivan III, Sophia Palaeologus, the wives of Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great's mother Natalia Naryshkin and many other royal personages were buried.

In 1929, the convent was completely destroyed by the Soviet authorities. However, the experts managed to make architectural measurements and photographic images and the graves were moved to the Archangel Cathedral. Today they discuss the plans of the restoration of the monastery.